Carriages are old vehicles
A carriage is a 4-wheeled vehicle drawn by horses or mules, having a cabin for transporting passengers, and its shade can be opened or closed, and it is used for transporting two passengers.
Dehkhoda Farsi dictionary introduces the carriage as: A 4-wheeled instrument with open front and a moving roof on the cabin than can be opened to be raised or folded to be laid. The word “Doroshkeh (carriage)” is derived from the Russian word “Darouzhki”, which is a small and light equipment in Russia with two or four wheels that is drawn by horses. This name is also used for similar objects in Russia, European countries, and Iran.
Carriages are old transportations means that theirs background in Iran goes back to over 2700 years. However, using them became popular in Safavid and Qajarid eras. This small beautiful vehicle that is produced at present with two or four wheels has different components that include a small cabin decorated by leather layers and valuable fabric decorations, two wheels and a metal or wooden axle that move the carriage, and some pieces of timber as “gosh (vehicle shaft)” for connecting the carriage to the horses. Apart from the above parts, a wooden object called “breeching shaft (Dougheh)” is connected on the “goshes” that transfers the weight due to the load or the passenger on the horse. During the Qajarid era, the carriages were designed with a little larger size and similar to the urban trains for moving on the rail. In addition to creating a non-crowded space in the carriage route, that design could help a great deal on the easy movements. However, the carriages were used then to transporting passengers and not for transferring loads.
Therefore, simpler wooden carts with either two or four carriages were used to move any types of goods. Fortunately, the profession of manufacturing and driving carriages are going on in Isfahan and some of the other historical cities, in their traditions shapes and forms. Riding carriages in Naghsh-e Jahan Sq. is one of the traditional jobs in Isfahan that is used for moving the domestic and foreign tourists and for introducing the cultures and historical places of the related cities, in order to illustrate a part of traditional life of the people in the past in addition to absorbing domestic and foreign tourists.
A carriage is a cabin on 4 wheels and used for 4 passengers. This vehicle was drawn by 4 horses. Carriages used to be used both inside and outside the cities.
According to the historical information, the first carriage was presented in the Safavid era, as a gift to Shah Abbas the 2nd by one of the Russian merchants.
George the 3rd, the British king sent a carriage as a gift to Fathali Shah of the Qajarid dynasty by the beginning of the 19th century.
It was another passenger cart for wealthy and high class people. They were drawn in the cities with two horses and in ceremonies with four or six horses in pairs behind each other.
The word “delijan” was derived from the French word “diligence” and it was for carrying 8 people. “Tramtas” was for carrying 3 people and it was roofed, while “tricca” with no roofs was also for carrying 3 people.
It is a stiff and vehicle without shock absorbers with the wheels having metal covered strips instead of rubber that could carry up to 900-1200 kg of materials. These carts used primarily to carry materials, but they were used later for carrying passengers. The passengers used to be surrounded in a cabin, having to tolerate intense vibrations. These carts could carry about 10 passengers.
In the first World War, the transportation as well as carrying objects used to be done by animals, which was later transformed into carts and carriages, and people gradually accustomed to them. Carts were introduced to Iranians by the Russians military campaign in Iran, and carriages were their presents to their beneficiaries. Carriages were special fot the kings and 1st class governmental authorities.
It is a vehicle with two wheels that is usually drawn by two or more animals. The difference between chariots and carts is that carts have 4 wheels and drawn by two horses. Both of these are different to carriages that are only used for transportation of humans.
They had four horses. The tired horses used to be changed to the fresh animals at each station. These carts were driven by two cart drivers, in successive turns. These carts used to carry postal packs and sometimes different passengers or consignments. The packs used to be loaded in the caravanserais.
It was a small cabin on two wooden posts, the passenger used to sit on the stretcher. The ends of the posts were connected to two hooks on the back of the animals, such as horses, and by moving the animals, the stretcher was also moved.
According to its definition, it was drawn by horses, and its driver was called “sourchi (in Farsi). The first horse wagon started working in 1928 during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, in Tehran.